Tradicionalni recepti

Izrada tek objavljenih vina za podrum

Izrada tek objavljenih vina za podrum


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Zaista sam bio uzbuđen nedavnim procesom nacrta NFL -a - tri dana u kojima su 32 momčadi odabrale 256 igrača u sedam kola. Svaki tim došao je na događaj s brojnim odabirom nacrta - neki visokim, a nekima niskim - ovisno o njihovoj filozofiji prikupljanja tipova ili prikupljanja igrača pri trgovanju s drugim timovima.

U redu, pa sam sada spreman upotrijebiti vlastite izbore točenih vina za odabir iz nedavnih izdanja vinarije kako bih obnovio opskrbu svog vinskog podruma. Neki će izbori biti za moju trenutnu potrošnju, neki će zabaviti prijatelje, neki će se koristiti za ležanje nekoliko godina. Na kraju ću izabrati vino ili dvije za posebne namjene - kategoriju koja se razlikuje od odabira igrača i postavljanja igrača u NFL -u.

Imam tri izbora u prvom krugu i četiri u drugom krugu. Da vidimo mogu li ih pametno koristiti. Navijanje pri odabiru je dopušteno. Pojačavanje mojih izbora dovodi vas do izbacivanja iz podruma.

Prva runda

Odlučio sam u ovom krugu odabrati najbolja dostupna vina sa stalka za uzorke.

Prvi izbor: Paul Hobbs "Catherine Lindsay" Ruski riječni pinot crni 2012. (88 USD). Ovo je veliko i krupno vino koje se ipak lijepo odijeva za stol - popijte ga sada ili pustite da sjedi nekoliko godina na klupi. To je složeno vino s okusima tamne trešnje, daškom jakog balzamika, ponekim notama mocha kreme i završnicom tamnih malina.

Drugi izbor: Zenato “Alanera” Rosso Veronese 2012 (20 USD). Ukradeno iz jedne od manje poznatih regija, ovo vino iz Corvine ima puno zaobljenih plodova kupine/borovnice s dobrom kiselinom u završnoj obradi i ugodnom mršavošću. Može se umetnuti praktički bilo gdje u liniji koja odgovara hrani.

Treći izbor: Martinelli "Bella Vigna" Sonoma County Chardonnay 2011 (40 USD). Vrlo velika blitva s puno kremastog hrasta i karamele ima okus voćnosti jabuke. Umjesto da odmah počnete, možda ćete morati sjediti oko sat vremena u posudi za posude.

Druga runda

Pravi dragulji često se biraju u kasnijim rundama, a sada biram za određenu potrebu.

Prvi odabir: Paul Mas “Saint Hilaire” Pays d’Oc Chardonnay 2012 (12 USD). U ovom točenom bazenu nema puno dobrih bijelih vina, pa sam ovo uzeo prije nego što je to učinio netko drugi. Iako će Martinelliju možda trebati neko vrijeme, ovaj je sada spreman - puno nalik na južnu Burgundiju s hrskavim okusima jabuke i samo nagovještajem toffeea na kraju. Vrlo dugo na nepcu.

Drugi izbor: Badia a Coltibuono "Sangioveto di Toscana 'IGT 2009 (59 dolara). B a C ima nekoliko dostupnih igrača u ovom draftu, ali ovaj mi se sviđa zbog kombinacije snage i finoće - zaokruženih, zrelih okusa suhih trešanja s hrskavim, slanim notama i odjekom vrhnja od maline u završnici.

Treći odabir: CVNE Viña Real Rioja Rosado 2014. (9 USD). Nemam više ruže, pa ne mogu napustiti propuh a da ga ne izaberem. Iako je ružičasta, zatvorite oči i okusite Marlborough sauvignon blanc - trpke jagode s malo citrusa i s puno kiselosti i mineralnosti.

Konačni odabir: Li Veli Santino “Orion” Primitivo 2013 (14 USD). Sviđa mi se njegova radna etika - bogata i složena s tamnim okusima crnog grožđa i svježih smokava te izvrsnim završetkom.


Francuska & rsquos Najzavodljivije vino

Zašto su kolekcionari tako ludi za Francuskom & rsquos poznatom crvenom mješavinom Ch & acircteauneuf-du-Pape? F & W & rsquos Lettie Teague posjećuje proizvođače etiketa koje izazivaju požudu.

Uvijek su me zanimale strasti drugih, posebno kad je riječ o vinu. Što nekoga čini ludim za Chardonnayem? Nagrada Burgundija nad Bordeauxom? Ili, kao u slučaju mog prijatelja Park B. Smitha, obožavam vina Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape? Park i Ch âteauneuf jedna su od najvećih svjetskih ljubavnih priča, upravo tamo sa Shah Jahanom i njegovom pokojnom suprugom (izgradio je Taj Mahal više od dva desetljeća u znak sjećanja na nju). Dok se Park obogatio u namještaju za dom, svoj je život usmjerio oko Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape. Ne može čak ni izgovoriti ime a da ne izvuče svaki slog 𠅌h â-teau-neuf 𠄽u-Pape —na način na koji bi ljubavnik mogao nazvati svoju voljenu.

Nema veze što Park može popiti sve što poželi iz svog zaista veličanstvenog podruma od 80.000 boca, vina iz svih važnih regija svijeta. (Park je nekoć posjedovao više slučajeva iz Ch âteau Mouton Rothschild iz 1982. godine nego što je to bar činila barunica de Rothschild.) No polovica tog podruma je Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, zapravo to je jedino vino koje sam ikada vidio u Parku piće.

Sviđa mi se Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, zaista. Divim se njegovoj bujnosti, bogatstvu i zemljanoj mineralnosti, aromatičnim notama začina i kupine i velikoj kiselosti, zbog čega se tako dobro slaže s hranom. I premda sam tijekom godina kupio popriličnu količinu toga, uključujući neke boce iz vlastitog podruma u Parku koje su prošle godine prodane na aukciji Sothebyja, nikada nisam osjetio strast koju Park osjeća. Je li to bio moj nedostatak ili nedostatak vina? Ili je to zato što nikad nisam bio u samoj regiji? (Park je toliko puta bio u Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, čak je i proglašen počasnim gradonačelnikom.) Možda bi posjet ipak promijenio moju perspektivu, najbolji način da cijenim vino je istražiti mjesto koje napravljeno je ’s.

Kad sam nazvao Park da mu ispričam svoje planove, djelovao je prilično zbunjeno. (Valjda Mekku nikad ne iznenadi hodočasnik.) Samo me zamolio da pozdravim njegove prijatelje. Park nije dao imena, ali pretpostavljam da su mu svi u Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape bili prijatelji.

Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape (ȁNovi zamak Pape ”), u Francuskoj dolini Rh ône, u Francuskoj, dobio je ime kada je njegov glavni grad Avignon postao novi dom Pape u 14. stoljeću. Za to vrijeme, neposredno prije velikog raskola, sedam Papa, svi Francuzi, odlučili su živjeti u Francuskoj, a ne u Italiji. (Papa Grgur XI., Iako Francuz, odlučio se vratiti u Rim. Loše mu je došlo.)

Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape grad je i vinska regija, a dok je prvi mali, drugi je prilično velik. Obje se nalaze unutar južne doline Rh ône, iako su zemljopisno dio Provanse. U skladu s tim, klima je blaga, za razliku od sjevernog kraja doline. I za razliku od hladnog sjevernog Rh ônea, gdje je zvijezda grožđe Syrah, u Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, mekši, bujniji Grenache prikazan je, najčešće kao dio mješavine. Doista, proizvođači Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape mogu legalno miješati do 13 grožđa, uključujući Mourv ຍre, Syrah, Cinsaut i šest bijelih sorti, što ga čini najkvalitetnijim odličnim vinom na svijetu. (Bijeli Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape može biti jako dobar i povremeno odličan, ali mene je, poput Parka, prvenstveno zanimalo crveno.)

Jedina stvar koju sjeverni i južni dio dijele Rh ône do dijele je le mistral, legendarni vjetar koji puše ljeti i zimi. Može puhati prilično jako, a zapravo može potrajati čak tjedan dana, a za njegovu je nemilosrdnost rečeno da je zbog nemilosrdnosti izgubio razum. Le mistral snažno je puhalo na dan kad sam stigao sa Scottom Manlinom, mojim prijateljem sakupljačem vina iz Chicaga, koji je također težio ljubavi prema Ch âteauneufu, poput Parka. 𠇍Mislite li da maestral utječe na posjetitelje na način na koji utječe na stanovnike? ” upitao sam Scotta dok smo iznajmljenim autom napuštali željezničku stanicu u Avignonu. 𠇚 li mi pokušavaš nešto reći? ” je odgovorio.

Zapravo, dok je maestral može izazvati mentalnu stabilnost vinara regije, to im je bilo i dobro, jer donosi (uglavnom) sunce i pomaže u očuvanju loze od bolesti. To je jedan od ključeva za stvaranje velikog Ch âteauneuf-du-Papea, zajedno s ogromnim kamenjem tzv. galeti koji pomažu vinogradskom tlu da zadrži toplinu danju, kasnije se oslobađa noću, čime pomaže sazrijevanju grožđa. Pa ipak, do zadnjih 20-ak godina nije bilo mnogo sjajnih Ch âteauneuf-du-Papes, budući da se većina vina prodavala na veliko preko zadruga. No, nova generacija proizvođača oživjela je stara imanja i počela proizvoditi modernija vina, pretvarajući regiju u jedno od najnaprednijih u Francuskoj.

Moj prijatelj Robert Parker, vinski kritičar, prvi je prepoznao i zagovarao te promjene, ako postoji netko tko voli Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape koliko i Park, to bi bio Bob koji je više puta uzvisio vina ’s velikodušnost okusa. Doista, kad sam pitala Boba za imena njegovih omiljenih producenata, dao mi je tako dugačak popis, znala sam da ih nikada neću moći vidjeti sve.

Na vrhu Bobove liste (i moje) bile su Sophie Estevenin i Catherine Armenier iz Domaine de Marcoux, moje prvo odredište. “Vi 𠆛it ćete kao sestre Armenier, ” Bob je točno predvidio —, pokazalo se. Sophie i Catherine bile su prijateljske i nepretenciozne u pogledu i u odjeći te strogo u traperice i razumne cipele. Zapravo, svaki producent kojeg sam upoznao, osim jednog (o tome kasnije), bio je jednako lagodan i fin.

Kao i većina proizvođača Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, obitelj Armenier proizvodi vino stotinama godina —praktično još od vremena avignonskih papa, a ipak je bilo malo načina ukrašavanja njihove vinarije: naša je degustacija održana u oskudno namještenoj prostoriji u kojoj je gola žarulja na zidu odavala miris gorenja. 𠇍Smeta li vam? ” zabrinuto se upitala Catherine. To je učinio — iako ni približno kao vjetar koji je počeo zavijati.

Razgovarali smo o najnovijim berbama, koje su sve bile različite u različitom stupnju. Vina 2003., godine velikog toplinskog vala, bila su nedosljedna: neka su bila vrlo dobra, dok su druga bila alkoholna i prezrela. Vina iz 2004. bila su uravnoteženija, strukturirana i suzdržanija. 2005. su bila bujna, upečatljiva i laka za voljeti. Puna snaga 2006. godine još nije bila poznata u vrijeme mog posjeta, jer je većina crvenih još bila u bačvi. Iako su mnogi proizvođači rekli da im je 2004. omiljena berba, “ preferiramo vina iz 2003. jer je godina bila teška, ” je rekla Sophie. Zapravo, njihovo punjenje Vieilles Vignes (“old vines ”) iz 2003. godine lijepo se pilo, iako je 2004. bilo elegantnije vino. 2005. bila je bogata, zrela i bogata alkoholom. The vieilles vignes vina su neka od najtraženijih u Ch âteauneuf — čak iako su s 250 USD po boci ’ jedva jeftina. (Domaine de Marcoux ’s standardno punjenje Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape puno je povoljnije po cijeni od oko 50 USD.)

Sljedećeg dana, na prijedlog Sophie, Scott i ja odvezli smo se do stvarnog dvorca Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, sada većinom ruševina, visoko na brdu s pogledom na grad. Ali naš nije bio povijesni obilazak: tražili smo ručak. Suprug Sophie, Jean Pierre Estevenin, kuhar je i vlasnik restorana Le Verger des Papes koji se nalazi odmah ispod ruševina dvorca. Nažalost, bilo je zatvoreno. Scott je izgledao nesretno. Na sreću, susjedna vinoteka, Cave du Verger des Papes, također u vlasništvu Estevenina, bio je otvoren. Scott je izgledao veselije kad smo ušli unutra. “Imaju sve, rekao je, skenirajući izložene boce. Prišla nam je mlada prodavačica: “Tvoje lice je poznato ” rekla je Scottu. “Je li to dobra ili loša stvar? ” je odgovorio. Žena se nasmiješila: “Nemamo loših klijenata. ” Zapravo, većina klijenata, rekla je, bili su Amerikanci 𠅋lizu 90 posto. “Prije nego što sam radila ovdje, nisam znala da je Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape toliko popularan među Amerikancima, dodala je.

Naravno, to je uvelike zahvaljujući Bobu, čija je velika pohvala Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape pomogla podići prepoznatljivost regije i, neki su rekli, povećali cijene vina. Pa ipak, Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape još uvijek nije ni blizu toliko skup kao Burgundija ili Bordeaux. Zapravo, prema Dan Posner iz tvrtke Grapes the Wine Company u Ryeu, New York (gdje kupujem svoj Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape), još uvijek ima puno vrijednosti u rasponu od 40 do 50 USD, poput vina Les Cailloux i Domaine de la Janasse. “To je luksuzni cuv ພs koji je postao toliko skup, ” je dodao.

Čini se da njihove cijene nisu bile važne Scottu, koji je odmah potrošio više od 2.000 eura na luksuzne kavu ພs. “Oni su#jeftiniji ovdje nego u Sjedinjenim Državama, ” je objasnio. Među vinima koje je kupio bilo je 2003. Deus Ex Machina iz Clos Saint Jean —one iz Parkera ’s �thbed vina. ” “It ’s Domaine de la Roman ພ-Conti iz Rh ône, & #x201D rekao je Estevenin, koji nam se pridružio. “Ne možete je pronaći,##x201D dodao je. Mislio sam da misli na vino, ali mislio je na domenu. “I ’ vozit ćete vas ’ nikada ga sami nećete pronaći. ”

Četiri čovjeka, jedan prilično velik, izronila su iz malenog bijelog kamiona dok smo se vozili kroz (neoznačena) vrata Clos Saint Jean. Unutra je veliki čovjek prošao pored nas dok smo ulazili u ured vinarije. Krupni čovjek sjeo je za računalo. Pogledao sam u ekran: On je provjeravao rezultate Clos Saint Jean ’s Parker. “To mi je Philippe Cambie, rekao mi je Vincent Maurel, vlasnik Clos Saint Jean. Cambie je bio konzultant kojeg je Parker nazvao “the Michel Rolland iz Rh ône, ” prema poznatom enologu iz Bordeauxa. Cambie je zaslužan za modernizaciju Clos Saint Jean i desetaka drugih posjeda Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape usredotočujući se na proizvodnju vina sa zrelijim voćem i korištenje malih bačava za odležavanje umjesto tradicionalnih velikih četvorke ili tenkovi.

Vina Clos Saint Jean dominantna u Grenacheu proizvedena su od vrlo starih loza. Oni su#raskošni, s notama tamnog bobičastog voća i začina. Oni su također iznimno koncentrirana vina s bogatim voćem, prototip modernog Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape —, posebno Deus Ex Machina iz 2005. i La Combe des Fous iz 2005. godine. Bilo mi je teško povjerovati da mogu odležati godinama da su u mladosti bili tako ukusni. Ali prema Cambieju, to je ljepota Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape: “Možete ga piti sada i za 20 godina. Možete ga piti staro i mlado. ”

Naše je kušanje završilo, Cambie se s iznenađujućom lakoćom ponovno sklopio u svoj mali bijeli kamion. “I će vas odvesti do Rayasa, ” je rekao. (Pitao sam se je li Michel Rolland ikada pomogao novinaru da pronađe susjedni bordoški ch âteau.) Put do Ch âteau Rayas bio je duži i kompliciraniji od onog do Clos Saint Jean i, kako se ispostavilo, putovanje je trajalo tri puta duže od našeg kušanja tamo.

Za vrijeme vinara Jacquesa Reynauda, ​​Rayas je bio jedan od velikih proizvođača Ch âteauneufa. Moj prvi okus Rayasa (s Parkom, naravno) bilo je slavno Reynaudovo slavno punjenje iz 1995., koje je Park proglasio za##x201Cnajboljim mladim vinom koje je ikada#kušao. Otkad je Reynaudov nećak Emmanuel preuzeo vlast prije otprilike desetljeća, vina su bila nedosljedna. Ali ipak sam želio vidjeti imanje.

Vinarija je bila u lošem stanju. Zgrada je trebala svježi sloj boje i čini se da je Emmanuel loše volje. Dao je Scottu i meni točno pet minuta da probamo uzorke tri njegova vina, a zatim nam je pokazao vrata. “To je bilo jedinstveno, ” je Scott komentirao. “Na neki način ne vjerujem da je on jedan od prijatelja Parka i#x2019, ” sam odgovorio.

Sljedeći smo put posjetili s jednim od omiljenih proizvođača Parka,#Laurence Feraud u Domaine du Pegau. Domaine du Pegau Cuv ພ da Capo bio je prvi moderni prestižni cuv ພ napravljen u Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, počevši od 1998. Nijansiran, elegantan i duboko aromatičan, gotovo kao svakodnevno vino za Park, toliko ga voli — nema veze što košta ’ oko 600 USD po boci.

Feraud, žena punkastog izgleda s šiljastom frizurom i uskim trapericama izrezanim na čizmama, spremala se puniti svoja vina, uključujući Capo, kad smo stigli. Prilikom stvaranja Capoa, Feraud je rekla da je inspirirana velikim okusima kalifornijskih vina. Činilo se da su njezini kolege proizvođači Ch âteauneufa inspirirani njezinim cijenama. “Sada svi moraju napraviti prestižni cuv ພ, ” se požalila. 𠇊li važno je napraviti dobar redovan Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape. ”

Svakako da je cijena posebne cuv ພ po 10 puta većoj cijeni od punjenja morala biti iskušenje. I drugi moderni proizvođači, poput Domaine de la Mordor ພ, kojeg smo Scott i ja sljedeći vidjeli, činilo se da nema problema s prodajom svojih cuv ພs po cijenama na razini Capo. Mladi vlasnik Domaine de la Mordor, Christophe Delorme, koji vodi imanje zajedno sa svojim bratom, stvorio je neke od najvećih, najbogatijih posebnih cuv ड u apelaciji: La Plume du Peintre i La Reine des Bois. “Imamo najviše koncentriranih vina u Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, ustvrdio je ” Delorme. I neke od najvećih razina alkohola: La Plume 2005. bio je znatno više od 16 posto. Ali to nije bilo na račun finoće. Nije ni čudo što je Parker rekao da vino može odležati 40 ili 50 godina.

Sljedećih nekoliko dana Scott i ja posjetili smo što je moguće više proizvođača, uključujući Henri Bonneau. Kuća Bonneau ’s možda je jedno od najtežih mjesta u cijelom Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, obilježeno samo komadom papira pored vrata na kojima je pisalo �ve Ferm ພ, ” ili �llar zatvoreno. ”

Bonneau, koji radi iz podruma nanizanog paučinom koji je Parker opisao kao špilju �t, ” je više više medijist nego tradicionalist, za razliku od modernih proizvođača koji ostavljaju svoja vina u bačvama prilično kratko vrijeme , često ostavlja svoje godine na odležavanju dugi niz godina —ili dok mu ne zatreba novac. ” Bonneau je očito dobro išao. Neka od vina u bačvi imala su sedam godina.

Bio je to Thierry Usseglio iz Domaine Pierre Usseglio & amp Fils koji je Scotta i mene odveo do Bonneauovih vrata. “O Inače ga nećete pronaći,##x2019 je rekao, sada već poznatu frazu. Njegovo vlastito područje bilo je prilično lako pronaći, odmah ispod ruševina dvorca i označeno ogromnim znakom. Vina Usseglio također je bilo lako cijeniti. Njihovo redovito punjenje uvijek je pouzdano, tradicionalno proizvedeno vino, dok je njihovo posebno cuv ພ, Mon A ໾ul, vino modernijeg stila, iznimno koncentrirano i bogato.

Naš posljednji posjet bio je Ch âteau de Beaucastel, krunski dragulj Ch âteauneuf-du-Pape, s državne ceste. Beaucastel je ogromna vinarija prema standardima Ch âteauneuf, koja proizvodi široku paletu vina, od osnovnih C ôtes-du-Rh ône (25 USD) do malih, posebnih cuv ພ poput Hommagea i#xE0 Jacquesa Perrina (uglavnom -Mourv ຍre vino, oko 450 USD). Vinarija također koristi svih 13 vrsta grožđa, a njen sommelier, Fabrice Langlois, sastavio je zamišljeni orkestar koji je uključivao svako od njih. “Grenache je violina, "rekao je Fabrice. “Mourv ຍre je viola i Syrah, klavir. ”

Vratio sam se u New York impresioniran i prosvijetljen, ali nisam bio siguran da sam potpuno shvatio izvor strasti Parka. Zatim je, nekoliko mjeseci kasnije, Scott došao u grad. Prijatelj je u njegovu čast priredio večeru kojoj sam pridonio bocu Domaine du Pegau Cuv ພ da Capo iz 2000. godine. Kako su je svi okusili, došlo je do kolektivnog daha. “Ovo je uistinu besprijekorno vino, ” napokon je rekao jedan prijatelj. Tako je i bilo: intenzivno i hedonistički, ali potpuno uravnoteženo. No, najvažnije od svega, shvatio sam, osvrnuvši se oko sebe, da je vino nevjerojatno obradovalo sve. Dakle, to je bila tajna Park ’s Ch âteauneuf ljubavi: To nisu bila samo sama vina, već ono što je osjećao kad ih je dijelio s prijateljima.


Zahtijeva li vaše vino odobrenje formule

Porezni i trgovački ured za alkohol i duhan (TTB) ima ovlast regulirati proizvodnju i uvoz vina u Sjedinjenim Državama. U nekim slučajevima TTB zahtijeva odobrenje formule prije nego što proizvođač proizvede određena vina. Pravila koja se odnose na to je li formula potrebna potrebna mogu biti zbunjujuća. Na primjer, je li potrebna formula za vino napravljeno i od jabuke i od maline? Što je s suho hmeljanom medovinom? Poznata je šala među odvjetnicima:

Profesor s pravnog fakulteta rekao je jednom diplomiranom razredu: "Prije tri godine, na pravo pravno pitanje, mogli ste iskreno odgovoriti:" Ne znam. "Sada možete s velikim autoritetom reći:" Ovisi. "

Tako je s vinskim formulama odgovor na oba gornja pitanja ... ovisi.

Što je formula i zašto Treba li odobrenje?

Jednostavno rečeno, formula je recept za vino. On govori TTB -u o ukupnom prinosu ili veličini serije, daje kvantitativni popis sastojaka, opisuje kako se proizvod proizvodi i kvantificira sadržaj alkohola u gotovom proizvodu. Budući da je agencija zadužena za osiguranje sigurnosti alkoholnih pića, TTB -u su potrebni ti podaci kako bi se utvrdile sve moguće prijetnje po zdravlje. Iako je vino proizvedeno isključivo od soka zrelog grožđa (vidi “Prirodna vina” u nastavku) dobro razumljivo i ne zahtijeva podnošenje formule, proizvođači vole pomicati granice okusa i utjecaja, fermentirajući sve što smatraju da je fermentirano. Podnošenje formula za takva vina omogućuje TTB -u da utvrdi jesu li te granice možda previše pomjerene.

Vrste vina

Iako postoje mnoge vrste vina definirane u naslovu 27, odjeljku 24.10 Zakonika o saveznim propisima (27 CFR §24.10), u smislu ovog članka usredotočit ćemo se na četiri.

Prirodno vino - „Proizvod soka ili mošta od zdravog, zrelog grožđa ili drugog zvuka, zrelog voća (uključujući bobičasto voće) napravljenog s bilo kojom podrumskom obradom odobrenom prema ... ovom dijelu i sadrži ne više od 21 posto težine (21 stepena brikoliziranog vina po Brixu) ukupnih krutih tvari. "

Posebno prirodno vino - "Proizvod proizveden na bazi prirodnog vina ... kojemu se dodaju prirodni aromi, a izrađen prema odobrenoj formuli u skladu s ... ovim dijelom."

Poljoprivredno vino - "Vino proizvedeno od prikladnih poljoprivrednih proizvoda osim soka od grožđa, bobičastog voća ili drugog voća."

Osim standardnog vina - ova kategorija obuhvaća vina koja ne odgovaraju drugoj kategoriji ili spadaju izvan regularne kategorije prekoračenjem određenog ograničenja (npr. Prirodno vino koje sadrži više od 21 posto ukupnih krutina).

Prirodno vino

Većina vina na tržištu proizvodi se od zrelog grožđa primjenom standardnih postupaka proizvodnje i podruma, pa stoga spadaju u kategoriju prirodnih vina koja ne zahtijevaju podnošenje formule za odobrenje. Prirodna vina mogu se poboljšati, počastiti ili zasladiti, a mogu se obogatiti samo vinskim alkoholnim pićima. Prije ili tijekom fermentacije mogu se dodati sljedeći sastojci: šećer ili koncentrirani voćni sok iz iste vrste voća, kvasac, hranjive tvari kvasca, malo mliječne bakterije, sredstva za sterilizaciju i voda (sve dok dodana voda ne smanjuje Brix ispod 22 stupnja (SG 1.092).

Popis posebnih materijala koji se koriste u procesu filtriranja, bistrenja ili pročišćavanja vina i količine koje se smiju koristiti u prirodnim vinima naveden je u 27 CFR §24.246. Korištenje ovih materijala izvan navedenih raspona ili upotreba neodobrenih materijala za obradu mogu proizvod učiniti drugim vinom osim standardnog vina, za što je potrebno odobrenje formule, vidi dolje.

U prirodna vina uključeni su i proizvodi proizvedeni fermentacijom mješavine voćnih sokova. Na primjer, vino napravljeno od fermentiranja soka od jabuke i soka od maline ili soka od grožđa i soka od višanja prirodna su voćna vina i ne zahtijevaju formulu. Međutim, mješavina dva gotova prirodna vina različitog voća (npr. Vina od jabuka i vina od maline) smatra se ne standardnim vinom, pa zahtijeva formulu.

Posebno prirodno vino

Posebno prirodno vino započinje bazom prirodnog vina, ali se zatim aromatizira prirodnim biljem, začinima, voćnim sokovima, prirodnim aromama, prirodnim esencijama ili drugim prirodnim aromama. Količine ili udjeli ovih dodataka moraju rezultirati karakterom i okusom koji se razlikuje od osnovnog vina i razlikuje se od ostalih prirodnih vina. Mogu se koristiti samo 100% prirodni arome. Primjeri posebnog prirodnog vina uključuju vino napravljeno od soka od jabuke s okusom hmelja ili vino od soka od kruške i s okusom meda. Za bojanje je dopušten samo karamel.

Zanimljivo je da se prema 27 CFR §24.197, prirodni aromatični materijali mogu dodati prije ili tijekom fermentacije. Na primjer, netko bi mogao dodati prirodni cimet u vino od jabuka tijekom fermentacije. U tom slučaju, za vino bi bila potrebna formula, jer se radi o prirodnom vinu kojemu je dodan prirodni okus (tj. Posebno prirodno vino). No, ako je prirodni okus sam za fermentaciju, poput soka od maline, tada je li potrebna formula ovisi o tome kada se dodaje sok od maline.

Voćni sok dodan nakon fermentacije prirodan je okus prihvatljiv za posebno prirodno vino. Međutim, voćni sok dodan prije ili tijekom fermentacije fermentirat će i smatrat će se fermentiranim umjesto arome, a proizvod se smatra prirodnim vinom, ne zahtijevajući formulu.

Još jedna bora nastaje u kontekstu miješanja posebnih prirodnih vina. Ako se tada pomiješaju dva posebna prirodna vina, od kojih svako ima svoju prethodno odobrenu formulu, bit će potrebno odobrenje formule za mješavinu, osim ako su dva posebna prirodna vina iste vrste. Na primjer, za proizvodnju slatkog vermuta miješanjem dva slatkasta vermuta, od kojih je svaki proizveden prema odobrenoj formuli, podnošenje i odobrenje dodatne formule nije potrebno. Vidi 27 CFR §24.198.

Poljoprivredno vino

Poljoprivredno vino proizvodi se od ne-voćnih poljoprivrednih proizvoda, poput mrkve, luka, rabarbare ili maslačka. Medno vino (medovina) i rižino vino (sake) također su poljoprivredna vina. S izuzetkom riže, međutim, fermentirana pića napravljena od žitarica, žitarica, slada i melase smatraju se sladovima (tj. Pivom), a ne poljoprivrednim vinima.

Čist suhi šećer može se dodavati poljoprivrednim vinima pod uvjetom da je masa manja od težine vode i poljoprivrednog proizvoda. Poljoprivredno vino smije se zasladiti samo ako je sadržaj alkohola ispod 14% ABV. Nisu dopušteni dodani prirodni ili umjetni okusi ili boje, osim što se hmelj može dodavati medenom vinu, sve dok hmelj ne prelazi 1 kilogram na 1000 kilograma meda.

Dok, kao kategorija, za poljoprivredna vina potrebno je prethodno odobrenje formule, TTB je napravio određene iznimke. S obzirom na gotovo 4.000 zahtjeva za formulu vina podnesenih 2015., TTB je nastojao pojednostaviti postupak odobravanja. Jedan od tih napora rezultirao je izdavanjem Rješenja TTB 2016-2, koje je odobrilo opće formule za određena „standardna“ poljoprivredna vina. Sve dok su ispunjene smjernice za proizvodnju navedene u 27 CFR §§24.202-204, nije potrebna formula za sljedeća poljoprivredna vina: vino od mrkve, vino od sušenog voća, vino od meda (medovina), vino od javorovog sirupa, vino od luka, papar vino, vino od bundeve, rabarbara, vino od slatkog krumpira i vino od rajčice. Međutim, ako se jedno od ovih vina proizvodi izvan smjernica u propisima, bit će klasificirano kao „drugo od standardnog vina“, kako je dolje objašnjeno.

Osim standardnih vina/vinskih specijaliteta

Ova kategorija vina više spada u sve kategorije, ali općenito spada izvan granica drugih skupina bilo zato što sadrži sastojke koji nisu dopušteni u tim kategorijama, bilo premašivanjem dopuštenog raspona za jedan ili više dopuštenih sastojaka. Konkretno, vina u ovoj kategoriji uključuju: vino visoke fermentacije, miješano vino teškog tijela, šerpijski miješani šeri i vinske proizvode koji se ne koriste za piće.

Nadalje, vina proizvedena sa šećerom i/ili vodom izvan ograničenja propisanih za standardna vinska vina proizvedena miješanjem vina proizvedenih od različitih vrsta voćnih vina napravljenih sa šećerom, osim od čistog suhog šećera, tekućeg čistog šećera ili sirupa od invertiranog šećera i vina od materijali koji nisu odobreni za upotrebu u standardnom vinu spadaju u ovu kategoriju. Destilacijski materijal i zalihe octa također se smatraju dijelom kategorije, ali za razliku od ostalih, ne zahtijevaju odobrenje formule.

Iako se ova vina mogu proizvoditi u carinskim vinskim prostorijama, moraju ostati odvojena od standardnih vina. Ova vina također moraju biti označena izjavom o sastavu. Izjava mora uključivati ​​izvor alkohola (uključujući i sve žestoke alkoholne piće), arome, boje i umjetna sladila. Određeni sastojci, kao što su FD & ampC Yellow #5 i karmin/košineal moraju biti izričito navedeni. Na primjer, "gazirano vino od jabuka s rakijom od višanja, umjetnim aromama i ekstraktom košine". Ako se prije fermentacije kombiniraju različiti fermentirajući sastojci, izjava o sastavu će ih sve navesti nakon čega slijedi riječ "vino". Na primjer, "vino od jabuka, grožđa i ananasa". Ako se kombiniraju različite vrste gotovih vina, tada ih izjava o sastavu navodi kao zasebna vina. Na primjer, "Mješavina vina od jabuka i rabarbare."

Općenito, vinska formula potrebna je ako se vinu dodaju arome, boje ili umjetna sladila ili ako se osnovno vino ne proizvodi u skladu s regulatornim zahtjevima. Važno je napomenuti da nakon što je formula odobrena, ako proizvođač želi promijeniti recept, dodavanjem ili uklanjanjem sastojaka, promjenama u upotrijebljenim količinama ili promjenama u procesu proizvodnje, mora podnijeti novu aplikaciju za formulu. Nakon odobrenja promjene formule, originalna formula mora se predati odgovarajućem službeniku za TTB. Vidjeti, 27 CFR §24.81

Što se tiče naših gornjih pitanja, ako se sokovi od jabuke i maline kombiniraju, a zatim fermentiraju, proizvod je prirodno voćno vino i ne zahtijeva formulu. Ako je sok od jabuke fermentiran, a zatim se doda aroma soka od maline, to je posebno prirodno vino koje zahtijeva formulu. A ako se gotovo vino od jabuke pomiješa s gotovim vinom od maline, to je vino drugačije od standardnog i također zahtijeva formulu. Što se tiče suho uskočene medovine, formula je potrebna samo ako recept premašuje 1 kilogram hmelja na tisuću kilograma meda.

Napomena o kanabisu

As the trend to marijuana legalization continues to grow, it seems that cannabis and alcohol are on a collision course, particularly with beer, but also with ciders, meads and other types of wine. In states where marijuana has been legalized, homebrewers have begun to experiment with adding marijuana to their products, but can commercial breweries and wineries do the same?

No. Certainly any winery that wanted to include some form of cannabis in its products would require a formula approval, because the additive would be either a natural flavor or an agricultural product. The TTB issued FAQ No. A29 on May 23, 2018, stating, “TTB will not approve any formulas or labels for alcohol beverage products that contain a controlled substance under Federal law, including marijuana.”

Substances, such as tetrahydrocannabinols (THC), cannabidiols (CBD), or terpenes that are derived from any part of the cannabis plant that is not excluded from the Controlled Substances Act definition of marijuana are controlled substances, regardless of whether such substances are lawful under State law.

Certain portions of the cannabis plant, however, may be permitted. Specifically, hemp seed oil, sterilized hemp seeds, and non-resinous mature hemp stalks may be included in alcoholic beverages, subject to formula approval, which requires submission of certain lab analyses. The product label, however, must accurately identify the ingredient such that it is clear the ingredient is not a controlled substance. The label also may not mislead the public into believing the product contains a controlled substance or has effects similar to those of a controlled substance.

Brian Kaider is a principal of KaiderLaw, an intellectual property law firm with extensive experience in the craft beverage industry. He has represented clients from the smallest of start-up breweries to Fortune 500 corporations in the navigation of regulatory requirements, drafting and negotiating contracts, prosecuting trademark and patent applications, and complex commercial litigation.


The Obscure French Grape Making Amazing American Wine

Nobody ever strolled into a winery looking to taste petit manseng. Merlot, chardonnay, even riesling, sure. Those varieties emerged as mainstays of Virginia’s tourism-oriented wine industry in the 1970s, to be sold in tasting rooms alongside marginal concoctions like plum and blueberry wines. But an obscure grape from the French region of Jurançon, unknown even to most Frenchmen? You couldn’t sell it. So why plant it?

Yet there comes a time in the maturation of every major viticultural region when its best producers segue from the grapes that everyone knows to those that thrive in the local conditions. For Michael Shaps, that meant petit manseng. Its tiny berries have high natural acidity, the attribute that can make wine thirst-quenching. They also have unusually thick skins, so they’re more likely to stay disease-free in humid weather. What would never have worked in Napa or Oregon was perfect for America’s Piedmont.

When Shaps, who had no ties to Virginia, returned to the U.S. from Burgundy, he declined various offers to serve as a cellar hand at West Coast properties in Oregon and Washington state because he wanted autonomy. After landing at Virginia’s Jefferson Vineyards, he started the Michael Shaps brand in 2000. He dabbled in merlot and cabernet, but knew that for his adopted state to stake its claim as a great winemaking region, it needed to produce wine that tasted like nothing else.

When Shaps had his first glass of local petit manseng in 2006, its crispness intrigued him. “I knew that I had to try to make it,” he says. If he could get the grapes ripe enough, he figured, all that acidity would work in his favor. Beginning in 2012, he started sourcing them from the Honah Lee Vineyard near Charlottesville. He made sure they stayed on the vines long enough to gain flavor and roundness, but not so long as to lose that signature tang.

Winemaker Michael Shaps Andrea Hubbell

The result is a uniquely American wine. The 2013 vintage, his second, is tasty but still broad and imprecise, like a crayon drawing. With the 2014, from a cooler season, it has come of age. Crackling with energy, with a flavor profile that hints at apricots and mangos with a squeeze of lime, it’s versatile enough to work perfectly with as complex a blend of tastes as Thanksgiving dinner. “Our best yet,” Shaps says.

He makes about 500 12-bottle cases of petit manseng annually and sells it as fast as he can get it in the bottle. When the Washington, D.C.-based chef and restaurateur José Andrés, a strong supporter of Virginia wines, tasted it, he tossed his credit card on the counter and asked to buy everything that remained. That consisted of a three-case stash of the 2012 that Shaps had earmarked for his own cellar. “I said, ‘You don’t understand, that’s for me. That’s all I have,’” Shaps recalls. Shaps wouldn’t budge until Andrés told him he wanted it not for his restaurants, but to drink at home with his wife. “When I heard that,” he says, “I sold him a case.”

At his small facility near the city of Charlottesville, Shaps makes a wide range of wines. His petit verdot and cabernet franc, especially, show the potential of bordeaux varieties in the region. They’re among the many bottlings, notably Barboursville Vineyards’ Octagon blend and Jim Law’s Linden Hardscrabble Chardonnay, that make Virginia worthy of consideration. But those are variations on a theme, wines so good that you’d almost identify them as French. This one is different. It could be nothing else.


Best Rosé: Grounded Wine Co. Space Age Rosé

Imagine the excitement of sitting around a television to witness Neil Armstrong take “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” as it was happening. Grounded Wine Co. founder Josh Phelps is tapping into that excitement with his playful, eye-catching Space Age label, drawing inspiration from the “space race” that ended with America landing on the moon. In Phelps’ new-age take on that ambitious time in history, a bottle of Space Age rosé, made from grenache growing in California’s Central Coast, is due to land on your doorstep. The label alone makes it worthy of a "best" rosé pick, but the delicious wine in the bottle is the real ticket.

Rich tropical fruit finds farmer’s market strawberries and candied watermelon in a mineral-fueled, tangerine-peel-tinged, elegant, and lip-smacking rosé. Drink it while stargazing or while re-watching Spaceballs, the 1987 Mel Brooks film, and toast with the classic line: “May the Schwartz be with you!”


Storing and Enjoying Your Kit Wine

Once you’ve mastered the art and craft of making kit wines, what do you do with them? Drink them, of course! We don’t need to teach you how to drink and appreciate wine, but there are some finer points to cellaring, decanting and pairing wine with food that you may findhelpful. Building a wine collection full of your favorite styles of wine, and with varied types that pair well with all kinds&hellip


In focus: South Africa’s wine tourism hotspots

The wine tourist who makes it to South Africa in the next year or so will have never had it so good. The range, excellence and value-for-money of the western Cape winelands’ accommodation, cuisine and cellar doors continues to reach new heights. And you’ll be hard-pressed to receive a warmer welcome, such is the gratitude felt towards visitors since the pandemic.

Being one of the fortunate few from overseas to have spent time in the western Cape in January and February this year, I can vouch that very strict adherence to anti-Covid procedures is being observed in wineries, hotels and restaurants.

Entry into them is only permitted after a temperature test hand sanitisers are everywhere you go and masks, which are compulsory in all public places, are worn much more fastidiously than in the UK.

/>La Residence

This is especially the case in Constantia, on the Cape Peninsula – the obvious place to start an exploration of the winelands. The Vineyard Hotel is something of a misnomer, being situated in the southern suburb of Newlands rather than in the midst of any vines, but it is an ideal location from which to explore Constantia’s wineries.

It is also a wonderful place to stay, being four-star but nearer five in quality. Its rooms look out over eight acres of gardens, with Table Mountain behind them. The former managing editor of the Daily Telegraph, Jeremy Deedes, likes The Vineyard so much that he and his wife spend every January and February there.

Those wanting to stay outside Cape Town on the Cape Peninsula should look no further than Steenberg Hotel & Spa, which is situated in the middle of Steenberg Vineyards. The hotel, very much a five-star, has 24 spacious rooms that are exquisitely furnished as well as three suites and two villas suitable for a family.

The historic old manor house, a 17 th century national monument, can also be booked and sleeps ten. The hotel has a pair of outstanding restaurants – Tryn and BistroSixteen82, the latter named after the year the farm was first settled.

Throw in a popular tasting room, where Steenberg’s full range of notable wines can be tasted, as well as a challenging golf course that is available to guests, and you have all the recipes for a self-contained wine tourism holiday.

There are, though, a number of wineries on the Cape Peninsula that shouldn’t be missed. The two southernmost are Cape Point Vineyards and Trizanne Signature Wines. The former’s cellar door boasts not just world-class Sauvignon Blancs, notably the Isliedh label, but also marvellous views of the white sands of Noordhoek beach below it.

Boschendal’s Orchard Cottage

Trizanne Barnard’s boutique setup is tucked away on the edge of Kommetjie, but her wines are well worth making the necessary appointment to taste. Her reserve Syrah is among South Africa’s best.

A quartet of leading Constantia wineries boast both excellent cellar doors and restaurants. The Jonkerhuis eatery at Groot Constantia, the oldest wine farm in South Africa, serves a savoury ‘estate tasting plate’ and scrumptious pavlova. Opposite it lies the magnificent manor house, built in 1685, now a museum and well worth a visit.

Klein Constantia, reached down the prettiest of winding drives, is a place you can happily spend half a day, with its welcoming tasting room and delightful new bistro, through whose deck a pair of jacaranda trees protrude.

The long list of wines, made by talented young winemaker Matt Day, needs time to taste through, and includes several top Sauvignon Blanc labels (such as Block 382, Clara and Perdeblokke), an aristocratic Bordeaux blend and South Africa’s finest sweet wine, Vin de Constance ­– a favourite of Napoleon.

Made from Muscat de Frontignan, the regally unctuous 2017 comes in at 165 g/l of residual sugar: that and older vintages can be tried with an afternoon cheese platter at the bistro. Chef Graham Davies produces ambrosial lunches to pair with Klein Constantia’s superb wines.

Neighbouring winery Buitenverwachting is another scenic old estate with impressive tasting and eating facilities. Beau Constantia, whose vineyards are the highest in Constantia at 362 metres, makes full use of its brilliant location.

Birkenhead House is prettified with paintings

Its restaurant, Chefs Warehouse, enjoys jaw-dropping views over False Bay while serving some of the best cuisine in the region. Chef Ivor Jones conjures up food of great flavour with a strong Asian influence, while Megan van der Merwe makes enticing wines to partner his dishes.

Culinary delights also abound in Stellenbosch, a number of whose wineries offer outstanding accommodation options. Not to be missed is Jordan Wine Estate, a few kilometres west of town, which has half a dozen luxury suites overlooking the vineyards.

Very nicely furnished, these are a short walk from the winery’s bakery and the celebrated Jordan Restaurant, where Scottish-born chef George Jardine fashions cuisine that is as stunning as the views from it of the Simonsberg, Helderberg and Stellenbosch Mountains. Try the aged Chalmar sirloin and the honey and poppy seed soufflé.

Another leading chef, Nick van Wyk, prepares outstanding fare at the Kleine Zalze restaurant, next to the winery. A tasting of Kleine Zalze Wines’ full range, which is produced by top cellarmaster Alastair Rimmer, is a must.

As many as seven of their labels were awarded five stars in the latest edition of Platter, the national wine guide which selected it as its top performing South African winery for 2020.

What is one of the western Cape’s most impressive winery brands (featuring 75 SKUs) is complemented by the comfortable De Zalze lodge and golf course. The latter is recognised by golfers as one of the best in the western Cape.

Babylonstoren

The Delaire Graff Estate superior lodges, meanwhile, rank among the most luxurious accommodation options in the winelands. Perched on the crest of the Helshoogte Pass, each lodge’s stylish and spacious interior spills out onto a private terrace and plunge pool with memorable views of Stellenbosch Valley below and Table Mountain in the distance.

Delaire Graff’s fine range of wines, made by the able Morne Vrey, is available for tasting, while chef Virgil Kahn cooks delicious Afro-Asian food at the hotel’s Indochine restaurant. Two wives of Stellenbosch winery owners oversee lunches in the most atmospheric of venues.

Elena Dalla Cia produces pasta that melts in the mouth at the Pane e Vino Food & Wine Bar at Bosman’s Crossing in the centre of town. Her husband, George, and father-in-law, Giorgio, the former Meerlust winemaker, craft a superb range of wines and spirits under the Dalla Cia label. Their grappa is among the best found outside Italy.

A few kilometres north of Stellenbosch at Muratie, one of the most characterful wine estates in the district, Kim Melck directs a kitchen whose quality and value-for-money lures visitors from far afield.

While the traditional old tasting room is a splendid nod to history, her husband Rijk has installed modern shower and changing facilities in a converted stable for cyclists and hikers who tackle the 26km of trails on the Simonsberg Mountain behind Muratie. A delightful cottage by the Muratie vineyards is available for short or medium term lets.

The beautiful 5,000-acre Boschendal estate in the picturesque Drakenstein Valley near Franschhoek also has a varied collection of desirable cottages for rent. These include the flagship Cottage 1685, and the secluded Trout Cottage, both of which are found in the private part of the farm, and the lovingly-restored Orchard and Werf farm cottages.

Surf’s up!

Traverse the estate on foot, mountain bike or horseback, and you come across caves to explore, dams to swim in and even the former set of Domovina, the American espionage TV series, some of which was filmed on Boschendal. The Werf restaurant offers sumptuous cuisine in a glorious setting, while cellar master Jacques Viljoen’s extensive range of Boschendal Wines is well worth tasting through at the homely cellar door.

Not far from Boschendal in the Franschhoek Valley is another big and very old Cape Dutch wine farm with five-star accommodation: Babylonstoren. The hotel section’s thick whitewashed walls, elegant gables and hearty fireplaces provide for an authentic farmstay experience, albeit in considerable luxury.

Another option is the estate’s lovely Fynbos Cottages, set well away from the celebrated eight acres of gardens and main buildings. These include one of the biggest underground cellars in South Africa, which is a special place to taste Babylonstoren’s range of wines. The hotel’s Babel restaurant has deservedly won a very good reputation, drawing almost exclusively on farm produce.

A twenty-minute drive from Babylonstoren takes you to the picture-postcard town and vineyards of Franschhoek. Accommodation options are numerous but the three places I stayed in made for a pleasing contrast.

The Rickety Bridge manor house, a refined old Cape Dutch building situated by the winery of the same name, has the sort of relaxing, ultra-comfy feel to it that makes you want to come back again. Paulina’s Restaurant at the winery is first-class, as are Rickety Bridge’s wines, notably The Pilgrimage Semillon from 1905 vines.

For sheer splendour and luxury, not to mention artwork, nothing beats La Residence. Tucked away in 30 acres of vines, olive groves and plum trees, this is one of the most opulent hotels not just in Franschhoek but the whole of South Africa.

/>Delaire Graff villa

The eleven huge bedrooms in the main building, as well as five vineyard suites, were all designed individually by owner Liz Biden, who has furnished them with consummate taste. An avid art collector, she has hung paintings and works from 29 artists throughout the hotel.

With its dramatic mountain views, world-class cuisine and incomparable levels of comfort, this is a rock-star hotel. Indeed, Elton John regularly stays there, with a signed photo of him left in his favourite room.

Those looking for a charming hideaway in Franschhoek would do well to try Akademie Street Boutique Hotel, named after the quiet road it is located in, a short walk from the town centre. A heritage building and former guesthouse, it was bought by an Irishman, Paul Kinney, in 2014 and refurbished to a very high standard.

Its eight suites are popular with British visitors, while a romantic cottage attracts honeymooners. The sizeable and tastefully-furnished suites have wood-burning hot-tubs on wide balconies. The breakfast around the main pool was the best I had in the western Cape, and included irresistible smoothies and a 12-fruit plate.

For lovers of sushi, GlenWood serves some top-class fare at its winery restaurant, several kilometres west of the town. Its wines, made by DP Burger, are also excellent, and can be sampled either at the handsome cellar door or at the ‘Nature’s Window’ tasting-room high up the mountain, a 20-minute walk from the winery. The vistas from there are spectacular.

/>Matt Day of Klein Constantia

When it comes to the sea views across Walker Bay towards Cape Peninsula that Grootbos boasts, you run out of superlatives. This fabulous five-star lodge, set in a private nature reserve of 6,000 acres that is home to 800 plant species and three milkweed forests over 1,000 years old, is conveniently close to the wards of Hemel-en-Aarde Valley, Elim, Napier and Stanford Foothills.

It is ideally situated to take in many wineries, but wine connoisseurs may not want to stray too far beyond its boundaries, for it has one of the finest cellars in South Africa. Owner Michael Lutzeyer has, over many years, stocked it with over 30,000 bottles from 50 top Cape producers, buying multiple cases of hard-to-obtain Cape Winemakers Guild wines. The cuisine at Grootbos matches the high quality of the wines, with the springbok shank being a personal favourite.

Grootbos lies half an hour east of Hermanus, where anyone wanting to explore the local wineries from a heavenly seaside base should stay at Birkenhead House. Perched on a promontory next door to Voelklip Beach, over which it has fine views, it contains eleven stylish rooms and is luxuriously open-plan. Its cuisine and wine list are both first-rate.

Tasty lunches also await visitors to the Sumaridge winery, which boasts gorgeous views from its restaurant down the Upper Hemel-en-Aarde Valley to the sea. British owners, Holly and Simon Bellingham-Turner, have worked hard to give visitors a special experience, while their winemaker, Walter Pretorius, fashions a wide and impressive range. Sumaridge’s well-appointed estate lodge, which sleeps eight, is available for hire as a whole.

Just as Birkenhead House stands out as the most desirable place to stay in Hermanus, so does another boutique establishment in Robertson, in the beautiful Breede River Valley region. If it has an unusual name – the Robertson Small Hotel – that is only because it has ten rooms.

Tucked away down a quiet residential street, it is a converted manor house that is now a national monument. Everything about it oozes class, from the deluxe rooms to the bar, restaurant and gardens.

Although the scenic Robertson wine district is slightly off the beaten track, it enchants many who get there, containing not just well-known wineries such as Graham Beck, De Wetshof and Springfield but also some hidden gems.

Jordan Estate

While those big three offer enjoyable experiences for the wine tourist, and should not be missed, much smaller setups like Arendsig Handcrafted Wines, Kranskop and Kleinhoekkloof are a joy to visit.

The Arendsig winery’s location by the Breede River could hardly be more idyllic. Owner-winemaker Lourens van der Westhuizen, who offers choice cottage accommodation near the river, produces single vineyard labels of note. Newald Marais, the former Nederburg cellar master, also fashions appealing wines at his Kranskop farm, with his Tannat standing out.

Tasters can enjoy his range over a cheese platter on a deck with a great view of the Langeberg Mountains. Kleinhoekkloof, being the highest winery in the district at 420m, possesses even more panoramic vistas. Owner Theunis de Jongh is an engaging host, providing a tasty charcuterie platter from his farm pigs that goes well with his appetising wines.

This spirit of enterprise is widespread through the western Cape. Leading Stellenbosch producer De Toren have just completed a revamped drive-up facility at the winery, with booking recommended for their new one-hour tour that includes a walk through the vineyard, cellar, barrel and maturation rooms followed by a tasting of their exemplary wines.

Kevin Arnold, cellar master at another top Stellenbosch winery, Waterford, has started three-hour vineyard safaris through the estate’s 450 acres of vines in the majestic Blaauwklippen Valley. Two stops with tastings in prime spots are included.

The drives, which are limited to ten people, take place twice daily in a game-viewing 4ࡪ vehicle procured from a national park. Waterford’s example epitomises the imagination that the South African wine industry is employing to give wine tourists the best possible experience post-pandemic. Those who do get to the western Cape will be amply rewarded.


Another family-owned winery, Harvest Ridge was originally founded as a hobby with land along the Mason-Dixon Line. (The property even features one of the Line's original crown markers.) The vineyard grows chardonnay, viognier, malbec, and merlot grapes and offers tastings and food so you can enjoy your visit.

Sandra T./Yelp

Focused on sparkling and dessert wines, San Sebastian is considered one of the premier wineries in Florida. St. Augustine is the oldest city in the state and the winery is just outside of downtown, making for a historic and scenic area to enjoy your wine. The winery tours and tastings are always complimentary—no purchase required. Inspired by Florida's Spanish heritage, the ambiance of the winery is cozy and speaks to Mediterranean influences.


Story

Deirdre Heekin and Eleanor Leger found each other through their love of the wild purity of fruit and botanicals. Orleans ciders are a unique and aromatic expression of the alpine Vermont landscape and a creation of two friends.

It was a snowy night at a hotel tavern in northern Vermont when Eleanor Leger and Deirdre Heekin met. Deirdre had just come out with her book Libation: A Bitter Alchemy, a collection of essays on wine and spirits. This was before the evolution of La garagista, when the idea of growing wine on Deirdre and her husband Caleb Barber’s hillside farm in Vermont was just a shadow at the edge of the imagination. There were some experimental vines planted at the homefarm in Barnard, but there was no inkling that Deirdre’s small, educational project would develop into the domaine it is today. In fact, it was unclear whether growing wine biodynamically at high altitude in this part of the world would work at all. Because Deirdre, a practicing sommelier at the time, was not sure she could grow wines of place like she so loved to serve at the restaurant she and Caleb shared, all that interest got channeled elsewhere, to what she thought at the time were more probable and reasonable possibilities for farming and fermentation in this northern clime. She had become enchanted by the world of infusions and macerations, amaro and rosolio. This seemed like a way to make something spirituous in the hills of Vermont, an agricultural expression that could also represent a sense of place. U Libation she wrote extensively about her fledgling winegrowing and winemaking project, her fingers crossed, and also about her introduction to and immersion in rosolio and amaro during extended travels in Italy which provided endless inspiration for food, culture and spirit.

Meanwhile, Eleanor and her husband Albert had embarked on realizing their own dream of making top notch ice cider from their land in a Vermont so north it was almost in Quebec. Albert, a native Arcadian, and Eleanor with a family history tracing to northern Vermont, chose this outpost to create an orchard and farm. They had been inspired by cideries in Normandy and knew that apples married very happily to the Vermont terroir. They wanted to work with the deep cold of snowy winters and began to riff off of the idea of ice cider. They named it Eden. When Deirdre and Eleanor met, Eden had had a couple of seasons under its belt and was refining the very particular process of letting cider freeze outdoors during the heart of the winter, then bringing that frozen juice into their cellar, drawing off the concentrated and condensed amber liquid to ferment into magical ciders. But like with all artisanal efforts, sometimes plans change, or life doesn’t go exactly as planned. One of the Eden tanks of cider decided it wanted to be something else. It fermented completely dry. At first Eleanor and Albert weren’t sure what that might be, until Eleanor met Deirdre and listened to her read about this world of elixirs infused with different herbs, flowers, fruits collected from the countryside. A lightening bolt struck Eleanor’s vision and as they say, the rest is history.

In 2010, Eleanor and Deirdre launched the first of a series of cider aperitifs inspired by old-world concoctions like Lillet, Campari, Chartreuse and classical French and Italian amari. Made for inspiring the appetite and good health, the first Orleans was named Herbal after the botanical infusion of fresh basil and anise hyssop. Then came Bitter comprised of house-made tinctures of angelica root, chicory root, dandelion root and leaves, and juicy red currant for color. The most recent addition is Wood, a wild-gathered recipe of sweet gale, spruce tips, and wild mint from Caleb and Deirdre’s farm in Barnard, steeped in the deep dry cider base produced during the ice cider process.

The recipes are developed together by Deirdre and Eleanor, and Eden Cider’s cellar master Garret Huber completes the circle of production up in Eden’s Newbury winery.


Grape Wine Recipe

1. Harvesting and processing. In order to preserve wild yeasts on grapes you should pick them only in a dry sunny weather. There should be no rain 2-3 days prior to that. Only ripe fruits are good for winemaking. Unripe grapes contain too much acid which deteriorated the taste of the final beverage. Overripe berries are prone to develop vinegary fermentation which can eventually spoil all of the must (squeezed out juice). I also don’t recommend picking up fruit drops, because they might add an unpleasant earthy taste to the grape wine, which is very hard to fix. Harvested berries should be processed within two days, after that they will become unfit for making homemade wine.

Harvested grapes are thoroughly sorted out, removing stems, unripe, tainted or berries with mold. Then the berries are mashed and together with the juice are placed in an enamel pot, filling it up to ¾ of its volume. It is best to mash the grapes by hands, thus not damaging the seeds, which contain substances that make the taste of wine bitter. If there are too many berries, then you should gently shuffle them with a wooden rolling pin (pestle).

You should avoid letting the juice touch metal (unless it’s stainless steel), because this causes oxidation, which spoils the taste of homemade wine. That’s why berries should be mashed by hands or with wooden tools, and put the pulp (mashed grapes) into an enamel hollow-ware – a bucket or a pan. You can also use food grade plastic (Plastic Containers – we have them for sale)

Then cover the container with a clean cloth and leave for 3-4 days in a dark warm place (65-74F° / 18-23°C). After 12-20 hours the juice will start fermenting, and on its surface “a hat” from peels will appear, which must be removed 1-2 times a day by stirring the pulp with a wooden spoon or by hand. If you don’t do that, the mash might start vinegary fermentation which will spoil your wine material.

2. Obtaining pure juice. After 3-4 days the pulp will get brighter, it will obtain sour scent and you’ll hear a hissing sound. This means that the fermentation has successfully started it’s time to squeeze the juice out.

The upper layer of peel is gathered in a separate container and squeezed with a press or by hands. All of the juice (should be separated from the sediment of the pulp) is filtered through gauze and transferred 2-3 times from one container into another. This transferring allows not only to get rid of impurities but also enriches the juice with oxygen, facilitating proper operation of wine yeasts.

Then fermentation containers get filled with pure juice (up to 70% of their volume). Ideally, glass containers should be used.

3. Installing an Airlock. In order to prevent your homemade grape wine from souring, you should secure it against air-influx and provide an outlet for the main fermentation product – carbon dioxide. This can be achieved by installing Airlock on top of the juice container. The most popular one is a classic Airlock consisting of a lid, a tube, and a jar (as can be seen on the photo – you can get it in our store).

A classic water lock scheme

A simple medical glove with a hole in one of the fingers proved to serve well at home too.

Wine fermentation with a glove

The design of a Airlock is not critical, but installing standard airlock on bigger containers is much more convenient.

4. Initial (active) fermentation. After installing a Airlocklock you should provide suitable temperature conditions for the containers. Optimal temperature of red homemade wine fermentation is 72-83F ° / 22-28°C, of white wine – 60-72F° / 16-22°C. You shouldn’t allow temperature to drop below 50F° / 10°C, otherwise there’s a chance of yeasts dying before turning all of the sugar into alcohol. Due to various reasons after 2-3 days the must might stop fermenting. If that happened, to restart the fermentation you may have to add wine yeast make a wine broth. Wine yeast is simplest, but here is short info on broth: put 5.3 oz / 150 grams of raisins into the bottle, 1.7 oz / 50 grams of sugar and add warm water up to 1/3 of the volume. Close the bottle with a cotton cork and leave it for 3-4 days in a warm place. When raisins start fermenting (bubbles will appear), you should pour out the broth, mix it with1 liter of the must and put it back to the wine container. That will restart the fermentation.

5. Adding sugar. Approximately 2% of sugar in the must give 1% of alcohol in the matured wine. In most of the regions sugar content of grapes does not exceed 20%. This means that without adding sugar you’ll end up with wine with ABV of 10-12%. The maximum strength of beverages is 15-16% because higher content of alcohol kills wild yeasts.

The problem resides in the fact that determining the initial sugar content of grapes in home conditions without a special device (hydrometer) is impossible. Focusing on the average grades is also useless because it requires having information about the sugar content of the selected variety in its climatic zone. In non-winemaking areas nobody does such calculations. Therefore, we will focus on the taste of the juice.

For maintaining normal fermentation sugar content of the must should not exceed 10-15%. In order to maintain this condition sugar is added by parts. After 2-3 days the fermentation has started taste the grape must. When it’s getting sour (sugar transformed) you should add 50 grams of sugar per liter of the juice. For this pour 0.25-0.5 gal / 1-2 liters of the must into a separate container, dissolve sugar in it, pour the obtained wine syrup back into the bottle and shake it well.

This procedure is repeated several times (usually 3-4) during the first 14-30 days of the fermentation. At certain point sugar content of the must will stop decreasing. This means that boiling fermentation has stopped and it’s time to go to the next stage.

6. Separating wine from the sediment.When the airlock stops bubbling for 1-2 days (the glove deflates) and the must got brighter and formed loose sediment at the bottom, the new homemade wine is poured into another container. The deal is that dead fungi are gathering at the bottom. If they stay in wine for too long, they will give it a bitter taste and a bad smell. 1-2 days prior to removing wine from the sediment the fermentation container is put above the floor (1.5-2 ft / 50-60 cm). You can put it on a bench, a chair or anything else. When there’s sediment at the bottom again, the wine should be poured into another container (dry and clean) through a siphon – a transparent soft tube 0.25-0.4 inches / 0.7-1 cm in diameter and 3.2-5 ft / 1-1.5 meters long. You should not get the end of the tube closer than 0.8-1 inch / 2-3 centimeters to the sediment.

Poured homemade wine won’t be absolutely transparent. You shouldn’t be afraid of it, the appearance of the beverage has not yet settled.

7. Sugar content control.It’s time to decide the sweetness of the new homemade wine. Since active fermentation has stopped added sugar will not transform and will stay in the beverage.

You should add sugar or sweeteners to your own personal taste. At first pour 0.25-0.5 gal / 1-2 liters of wine, add sugar (not more than 3.5-7 oz / 100-200 grams per 0.25 gal / 1 liter) and then stir it, pour the wine with dissolved sugar back into the bottle and stir it again. If you’re okay with the sweetness of the beverage then you can skip this step, just how you did with dry wine.

8. Still fermentation (maturation). This stage defines the final taste. It lasts for 40-380 days. Longer aging of homemade wines is pointless, since it doesn’t improve beverages features.

To mature wine container is closed with a airlock (recommended) or tightly sealed with a lid. You should keep the container in a dark cellar or basement at a temperature of 50-61F° / 10-16°C. If it’s impossible, then you should provide a temperature of 65-72F° / 18-22°C (but not higher) for the maturation of the new wine. It’s important to avoid temperature drops otherwise, the taste will get worse. The minimum term of white wine aging is 40 days, of red wine – 60-90 days.

You should transfer the wine from one container to another through a straw every 7-10 days, removing it from the sediment like we did at the 6th stage. As a result, it will keep getting brighter and brighter. Simultaneously you control its taste.

9. Artificial fining of wine (lighting).Even after several months in a basement homemade wine might still remain cloudy. If that’s not okay with you, you can use techniques of wine clarification.

You should remember that clarification can improve only visual appearance of the beverage but not its taste.


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